Cómo hacer un arreglo a 3 voces para órgano de “Jesús, Alegría de los Hombres” de J. S. Bach.

 Es traducción. Publicada con permiso del autor, Dr. Vidas Pinkevicius – www.organduo.lt – 16/Abr/2012

                Uno de los movimientos más populares de las Cantatas de J. S. Bach es el célebre “Jesús, Alegría de los Hombres”. Ésta obra fue compuesta originalmente como la parte coral de la Cantata No. 147 (“Corazón, Boca, Obra y Vida”), a ser cantada al término de las partes I y II. A muchos organistas les encanta tocar ésta obra en bodas y otras ocasiones festivas. Debido a su popularidad tiene muchas versiones disponibles para órgano, mas no necesariamente se adecúan a ti. En el presente artículo te mostraré cómo arreglarla a 3 voces para órgano, lo cual sonará muy bien y será confortable de tocar.

                Antes de hacer el arreglo, debemos familiarizarnos con la instrumentación orquestal. Viendo la partitura original notamos que la obra se escribe en 9 pentagramas. El coral armonizado es ejecutado por el coro a 4 voces SATB, el cual en la época de Bach también pudo haber sido cantado por los 4 solistas. La voz de Soprano es reforzada por la Trompeta en Do.

                La línea del bajo está a cargo de al menos 5 ejecutantes: Bajo vocal, violonchelista, clavichembalista (u organista), contrabajista y quizás un fagotista. El bajo vocal participa en las frases del coral. Podemos imaginar al propio Bach tocando el clave o el órgano y dirigiendo al mismo tiempo. Habría estado tocando la línea del bajo en la mano izquierda y añadiendo acordes o alguna elaborada voz solista, derivada del bajo continuo, en la mano derecha. El contrabajista tocaría la parte del violonchelo a una octava inferior (al nivel de 16′).

                Las 3 partes instrumentales están previstas para 2 violines, viola y también 2 oboes que doblan al Violín I. El violista tendría que tocar de la clave del contralto. Observa que la métrica del Violín I es de 9/8, mientras que a las otras voces les corresponde 3/4. Esto se hace probablemente para evitar tresillos en Violin I.

                Como puedes ver se trata de todo un ensamble de al menos 14 personas. Con el fin de hacer una versión para órgano de ésta pieza, hemos de decidir cuáles partes son más importantes, porque obviamente no podemos tocar al órgano todas las partes al mismo tiempo. Hay 3 líneas importantes en ésta composición: La melodía coral, el Violín I que toca ritornellos orquestales y el violonchelo que provee la fundación armónica.

                Tocando ésas 3 partes en sendas divisiones pudiéramos hacer una muy agradable y satisfactoria versión para órgano con una textura a trío. La parte Violín I puede tocarse usando combinando los registros de flauta de 8’ y 4’, en la mano derecha. La melodía coral sonaría mejor si se tocase en el rango del tenor (una octava abajo) en la mano izquierda con el registro de Solo, quizás usando un registro suave de lengüeta, tal como un oboe. Podemos llevar la línea del violonchelo en los pedales mediante registros suaves de 16’ y 8’.

                La versión a 3 partes de “Jesús, Alegría de los Hombres” sonará muy bien en el órgano y no será muy difícil de aprender. Sólo asegúrate de tratar éste arreglo como a una verdadera composición para órgano, y practicarla lentamente, con digitación, pedalización, articulación y fraseo correctos. Es mejor practicar repetidamente un segmento corto por vez.

                Si quisieras aprender ésta pieza en 10 días, practicando sólo 30 minutos por día, puedes descargar aquí mi arreglo a 3 partes, editado de una forma muy didáctica. Incluye digitación, pedalización, articulación, sugerencias de tempo y  registros, y un detallado plan de práctica paso a paso.

      A propósito, ¿quieres aprender a tocar el Rey de los Instrumentos: El órgano de tubos? Si es así, carga mi guía audiovisual GRATUITA:  “How to Master any Organ Composition”, en la cual te mostraré exactamente mis pasos, técnicas y métodos que empleo para practicar, aprender y dominar cualquier pieza de música para órgano.

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