¿Cuáles son los principios básicos de la selección de los registros del órgano?

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 Es traducción. Publicada con permiso del autor Dr. Vidas Pinkevicius – www.organduo.lt – 21/Ene/2012

      Si bien la selección de registros del órgano es un tópico muy complejo, es muy importante para todo organista tener al menos un entendimiento básico. Es necesario porque no toda pieza de órgano tiene impresa la indicación de registros en la partitura. Algunas veces tales indicaciones corresponden a la intención original del compositor, quien trabaja en un tipo muy específico de órgano. Y más aún, no es infrecuente ver las indicaciones de registro en otro idioma. Cualquiera sea el caso, tenemos que estar al tanto de ciertos principios básicos subyacentes que gobiernan nuestra selección de registros. En el presente artículo me gustaría darte algunas de mis sugerencias personales que te ayudarán a tomar decisiones con conocimiento de causa al escoger la combinación de registros.

      Cambia la indicación de registros cuando sea estructuralmente necesario. Cuando no haya indicaciones de registros por parte del compositor, sugiero hacer cambios de registros sólo en lugares que sean estructuralmente importantes. Piensa en la forma de la pieza. Por ejemplo, si tocamos un Preludio y Fuga, es a menudo aceptable cambiar de registros, o al menos de teclado, después del Preludio. No obstante, algunos los cambian durante la fuga misma. Aunque no hay una decisión correcta o errada allí, aún piensa en si el cambio de registro enfatiza las partes estructuralmente importantes de la pieza. Pienso que agregar un registro meramente por el sonido no es tan contundente como hacerlo cuando percibes la necesidad (cuando viene el segundo tema o al principio de un stretto, etc.).

      Simplicidad. Cuando dudes, mantenlo simple. Siempre es mejor tocar toda una pieza con un mismo registro que embrollar las cosas. Dicho de otro modo, si sientes que tu Preludio y Fuga requiere un cambio de registro porque el coro principal de tu órgano es demasiado rudo, es mejor no tomarse la molestia a menos que estés muy seguro de tus decisiones. Con frecuencia pensamos que los oyentes no tolerarán cierto sonido por mucho tiempo, mas en realidad lo que importa es la música misma. Una composición estupenda sonará bien empleando distintas  selecciones de registros. Por otra parte, una composición floja difícilmente será más convincente mediante el cambio del registro (toma muchísima experiencia). No obstante, en algunos casos de ciertos órganos históricos, la combinación de registros puede ser tan eficaz como la música misma. Por ésta razón es que mucha de la música de órgano antigua pudiera sonar tediosa en un órgano moderno.

      Otro ejemplo: Sé de muchos organistas quienes preparan el registro de las obras de Franck de un modo muy complicado. Tratan de lograr la dinámica perfecta, y agregan registros cada pocas frases. Obviamente esto es demasiado. Tratándose de música como la de Franck, debemos hacer clara la estructura de la pieza.

      Práctica sobre teoría. Esto es muy importante, no importa cuáles sean las indicaciones originales del compositor, aún tomamos nuestras decisiones en función del resultado. Por ejemplo, si un compositor romántico francés quiere un oboe para un lugar en particular, tenemos que pensar en el tipo de oboe que él tenía disponible. Luego tenemos que verificar si el oboe de nuestro órgano produce el mismo efecto. U otro caso, si una pieza de la escuela clásica francesa contiene indicaciones de registro muy específicas, tal como Voz Humana (un registro de lengüeta), debemos comparar los sonidos franceses con los de nuestro órgano. Una Voz Humana alemana no sería la misma. En muchos casos, tendremos que establecer compromisos para alcanzar el resultado deseado.

      Emplea 8’ o 16’ como fundamento en los teclados. Para la mayoría de la música escrita desde el siglo XVIII, es normal emplear 16’ como fundamento en el pedalero. Si los teclados estuviesen basados en el nivel de 8’, los pedales deberían estar en la octava inferior. En otras palabras, cuando el registro más bajo de los teclados sea 8’, toca con 16’ en el pedalero. Tocar sin 16’ en el pedalero implicaría prescindir de la necesaria gravedad.

      Excepciones. Como con la  mayoría de las reglas, siempre hay excepciones. Por ejemplo, era una convención en el Barroco, especialmente en el siglo XVIII, tocar el cantus firmus (la melodía del coral) en el pedalero, incluso cuando estuviera anotada en la parte del teclado. Si el coral estuviese ubicado en el tenor, necesitarías emplear 8’ como fundamento en el pedalero. Si el cantus firmus estuviese en el contralto, pudieras ubicarlo en el pedalero con registro de 4’. Y más aún, la melodía del coral en el soprano pudiera tocarse en el pedalero con registro de 2’.

      A próposito, pudieras intentar tocar himnos de ésta manera. Éste sería un ejercicio fantástico de tocar a primera vista. Aquí necesitarías tener contralto y tenor en la mano derecha, bajo en la izquierda con 16’ en otro teclado, y soprano en el pedalero con registro de 2’.

      Ésas son mis sugerencias personales para establecer el registro de una composición para órgano. Desde luego es solo una generalización y tú tendrás que considerar muchas variables, tales como periodo histórico, escuela nacional, tipo de música de órgano, instrumento disponible y muchas otras cosas. Si quisieras conocer más acerca de la selección de registros, recomiendo encarecidamente “El Registro de la Música de Órgano Barroca”, de Barbara Owen. Como figura en la Revista de la Sociedad Americana de Instrumentos Musicales:  “En éste libro, Barbara Owen ha creado una rica fuente de información histórica engranada con estrategias para interpretar dicha información en los instrumentos de hoy en día”.  La Revista del Siglo XVI también agrega que: “Barbara Owen ha tenido éxito, admirablemente, en destilar tres siglos de práctica en la combinación de registros del órgano, en un volumen de menos de 300 páginas… Todo quien tenga interés en la historia del órgano y de su música… no querrá soslayar éste libro”. Personalmente empleo éste libro como una guía en la mayoría de mis recitales de órgano.

            A propósito, ¿quieres aprender a tocar el Rey de los Instrumentos: El órgano de tubos? Si es así, carga mi guía audiovisual GRATUITA:  “How to Master any Organ Composition”, en la cual te mostraré exactamente mis pasos, técnicas y métodos que empleo para practicar, aprender y dominar cualquier pieza de música para órgano.

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